Identify Locally-Viable Smart Growth Policies
The following list is meant to make the "Identify Locally-Viable Smart Growth Policies" goal more actionable and SMART. This list may not be complete.
3.1 Promote Dense Grid over Cul-De-Sac Street Layouts: Regular street grids promote walkability and bikeability providing more direct connections between origins and destinations. They also decrease emergency response, trash pick-up, sewer/utility, and other municipal costs. People who live in cul-de-sacs drive 18% more than those living in a dense grid. Cul-de-sac development should be taxed to include increased municipal and carbon emission externalities to encourage street grids and/or prevent street grid development patterns to subsidize cul-de-sac street layouts by charging the falsely equivalent tax rates.
3.2 Promote small blocks: Standard block sizes range from walkable 200x200 ft. to unwalkable 600x600 ft. In a California study of 24 cities, doubling block size quadruples the number of fatal collisions. Existing Little Rock parcel sizes allow regular 330x165 ft. or 330x330 ft. blocks; these promote walkability. A 330x165 ft. and 330x330 ft. layout should be encouraged in future developments. Development of larger block sizes that encourage driving over walking/biking should be taxed to capture externalities associated with carbon emissions.
3.3 Promote dense development: Density decreases emergency response, trash pick-up, sewer/utility and other municipal costs. Density should be encouraged by taxing expensive sprawling development and using the revenue to subsidize dense development projects.
3.4 Promote infill development over dispersed development: Development dispersed from our urban core requires more street construction and maintenance, requires higher costs for emergency response and utilities, and creates more carbon emissions. Encourage infill development over dispersed development by taxing for the costs of these externalities.
3.5 Embrace Mixed Use Zoning over Euclidean Zoning: Mixed use zoning encourages car-optional transportation by allowing different types of destinations (residential, work, shopping) to be close together and therefore walkable or bikeable. Euclidean Zoning physically separates land uses, requiring longer (automotive) transportation to link origins to destinations. Zoning and land use planning should zone for mixed vs. separated use to decrease carbon emissions.
3.6 Embrace Form-Based Code: Form-Based Code can guide mix-use development to be more walkable and bikeable by making setbacks, transitions between public and private land uses, scaling, and other placemaking elements more welcoming for these transportation modes.
3.7 Limit travel lane widths: Vehicular speeds increase and bicycle and pedestrian safety decreases as travel lanes exceed 10.5 ft. Make 10.5 ft. travel lanes the design standard for all City streets and require exceptions to this lane width be reviewed by a transportation citizen oversight committee.
3.8 Abolish Parking Minimums throughout City: Parking minimums in urban development subsidize motor vehicle transportation at the expense of all other transportation modes and tie the hands of developers who may prefer to cater to people moving via other modes.
3.9 Consider an Urban Growth Boundary: Urban growth boundaries help limit sprawl through zoning restrictions inside and outside the boundary and limiting or not allowing exceptions to that zoning without a vote to expand the boundary. This creates dense development within the boundary compatible with alternative transportation modes.